An in-depth analysis of the construction, physical properties, tuning, and playing techniques of each instrument is presented in this chapter. Not meant as a substitute for each section on instruments found in previous chapters, but as a theory heavy chapter for the instrument makers and curious minds that want a deeper understanding of the cultures the instruments belong to.


An extensive list of all the scales used throughout Westeros and Essos is presented in this chapter to serve as a reference for musicians interested in them. When possible, I have included the fraction that represent the pitch of a note relative to the root of the scale below the note itself. The list is as of now incomplete for many cultures but I will add more in time.


A collection of all the musical terms of employed throughout the volume can be found here.